Assault on Berlin

April 16, 2005

Sixty years ago today the Red Army began its assault on Berlin while the Western Allies waited not far from the city, allowing the Russians to advance as per a prior agreement. The German civilians, for their part, prayed fervently that the Western Allies would take Berlin. But the Russians advanced, ragged Belorussians and Mongolian conscripts. Tens of thousands of women were raped repeatedly and brutally. It is a sickening tale. I have spoken with victims and survivors of the horror.

As a boy, I was fascinated by Leon Uris’s Armageddon. This compelling work of fiction that deals in part with this situation raised my interest in this historical episode. But that is all it remained to me until I myself went to Berlin and labored among that city’s inhabitants as a missionary. Now this episode is much more than a history of a fallen city; I can see the wives and mothers, the cramped and desperate cellars where they hid in refuge from the raping army. It was a tragedy. Their misery and suffering is added to the unmeasurable horror perpetrated by Hitler’s aggression in condemning Hitler and his war machine. He himself made Berlin a front-line city and swore that the innocent civilians would pay with their blood for his defeat. His defeat was indeed necessary; the war against him was just. If only the Western Allies could have assaulted Berlin that day sixty years ago.


If Men Were Angels

April 16, 2005

Are people fundamentally good (cf. Gen. 1:27; Psalms 82:6; 2 Ne. 2:25) or fundamentally evil (cf. Mosiah 3:19; Alma 42:9-14; Ether 3:2; D&C 29:40-44), and what effect does the answer to this question have on the prospects of a Mormon jurisprudence?

Naturally, this might be a false dichotomy, an inquiry with little real value. Still, it seems that, if such characterizations are possible, the answer could affect views of agency, justice, and law.

Latter-day Saint doctrine certainly breaks from much of the bleakness of Protestantism, dark Calvinism, and any other form of debilitating pre-determinationalism. Is the LDS approach to human nature, however, more positive than these worn-out worldviews? If it is, can it offer alternative or better constitutive principles for the genesis of jurisprudence and laws than have the former determinative principles?

The political and legal system of the United States is the beneficiary of political and legal institutions of England. These were built into the new Constitution of the United States, a document that was the first of its kind and that has offered guidance to many. The Constitution, interestingly, arises from premises based in the dark view of human nature. Thus, explains Madison in Federalist 10,

The latent causes of faction are thus sown in the nature of man; and we see them everywhere brought into different degrees of activity, according to the different circumstances of civil society. A zeal for different opinions concerning religion, concerning government, and many other points, as well of speculation as of practice; an attachment to different leaders ambitiously contending for pre-eminence and power; or to persons of other descriptions whose fortunes have been interesting to the human passions, have, in turn, divided mankind into parties, inflamed them with mutual animosity, and rendered them much more disposed to vex and oppress each other than to co-operate for their common good. So strong is this propensity of mankind to fall into mutual animosities, that where no substantial occasion presents itself, the most frivolous and fanciful distinctions have been sufficient to kindle their unfriendly passions and excite their most violent conflicts.

This is indeed a keen observation on Madison’s part, but is it too negative and untrusting of human nature? Is this a premise informed by centuries of dark Protestantism? Do belief in the evil nature of man and such resulting observations turn into a self-fulfilling prophecy? Madison famously notes further in Federalist 51:

It may be a reflection on human nature, that such devices should be necessary to control the abuses of government. But what is government itself, but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.

This perspective is really disparaging on human nature. Still, proceeding from this negative view of human nature, the Founders created an ingenious way to channel such evil so as to check itself and to net it in a way, to harness it, that it works for the greater good. Reading the rest of Federalist 51 reveals some of this genius and reasoning. The question is merely whether the evil of human nature is really a necessary starting point for considerations of constitutional and common law. Does LDS doctrine offer an alternative?


April 16, 2005

Why is it that when we see a group of orthodox Jews walking down 1300 E. on a Friday evening to synagogue, all dressed up in orthodox attire (thus very distinctive and conspicuous), we don’t really give it a second thought, but when we see a group of FLDS walking down Main Street all dressed in their homespun cloth and plain dresses, etc., we stare and dwell on their oddity?

I suppose the answer is relatively easy: Jews in their traditional religious attire are, although different and distinctive, a fixture or mainstay in our Western civilization. True, they have a long history of persecution based on the perceived differences in their lives and religion. And perhaps the random guy in Berlin might have the same impression of Jews proceeding to synagogue that I have of FLDS people proceeding to court in downtown SLC. Somehow, though, seeing the orthodox Jews, for me, is completely normal. The FLDS, however, really stand out. The scene I see every Friday evening on 1300 E. in SLC could be repeated on Friday evening anywhere that Jews live. On the other hand, FLDS are truly quite local and marginalized on even this local level.

Interesting Day

April 16, 2005

Today is interesting for two reasons:

(1) Disney is filming a movie on my street (Logan Ave.), just a few houses up (to the east). There are five or six huge trucks sitting on either side of the street and crew walking all around.

(2) A church group came and mowed my front lawn as a service project. For all the flack that the Church gets in the Bloggernacle for not being friendly enough etc., I must admit that I have never seen members of another church besides the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints go around the neighborhood doing random service projects for neighbors. I never saw it happen in Dallas, Connecticut, or here in Salt Lake City–it certainly has never happened to my own family during my life. But today, people from the K2 church here in SLC–a new capuccino-serving church in the area–showed up on our street and after mowing across the street from us, came over and offered to mow ours too. That was very nice of them.

Catholic Tender Mercies

April 8, 2005

On the occasion of the Pope’s funeral today, I reflected on the tender mercies of the Lord, and how the Pope was often an instrument in the hands of the Lord to impart such tender mercies on His children who look with an eye single to His glory through their Catholicism. When Elder Bednar spoke of the tender mercies of the Lord in the Sunday afternoon session of the recent General Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, he reminded us of the Lord’s caring for His children and of His awareness of our situation. Elder Bednar shared an amazing story that can be understood as representing such a tender mercy of the Lord:

In a recent stake conference, the tender mercies of the Lord were evident in the touching testimony of a young wife and mother of four whose husband was slain in Iraq in December of 2003. This stalwart sister recounted how, after being notified of her husband’s death, she received his Christmas card and message. In the midst of the abrupt reality of a dramatically altered life came to this good sister a timely and tender reminder that indeed families can be together forever. With permission I quote from that Christmas card:

“To the best family in the world! Have a great time together and remember the true meaning of Christmas! The Lord has made it possible for us to be together forever. So even when we are apart, we will still be together as a family.

“God bless and keep y’all safe and grant this Christmas to be our gift of love from us to Him above!!!

“All my love, Daddy and your loving husband!”

Clearly, the husband’s reference to being apart in his Christmas greeting referred to the separation caused by his military assignment. But to this sister, as a voice from the dust from a departed eternal companion and father, came a most needed spiritual reassurance and witness. As I indicated earlier, the Lord’s tender mercies do not occur randomly or merely by coincidence. Faithfulness, obedience, and humility invite tender mercies into our lives, and it is often the Lord’s timing that enables us to recognize and treasure these important blessings.

Paradoxically heart-wrenching and comforting at the same time, this story is a wonderful example of the tender mercies of the Lord.

Pope John Paul II seemed to be an instrument in the Lord’s hands to provide such tender mercies from the Lord to many people. My mind turned to Elder Bednar’s description of the tender mercies of the Lord as I read an incredible account in the German newspaper Die Welt that described just such a tender mercy of the Lord imparted by the Pope.

The Rome correspondant for Die Welt, Paul Badde, wrote of the tender mercy he and his family experienced because of the Pope. On November 17, 1980, the Pope was making a visit to Fulda, Germany. On that occasion, Badde had traveled from Offenbach to Fulda so that his young deaf son might have an opportunity to see the Pope (since he would never be able to hear him). But Badde arrived too late to get seating in the cathedral, which was filled to capacity. He unsuccessfully tried to convince the ushers/door-guards to just allow him to go in and stand so that his deaf son could see the Pope. One of the guards took him aside, however, and told him that he understood his desire and that if he would meet him near the cathedral later that evening, he would help them find just the right spot to see the Pope as he left the cathedral. That evening, the guard positioned them near the door of the cathedral and as the Pope exited the building, he walked directly over to Badde and his son.

Dann stand er vor mir. “Heiliger Vater”, sagte ich leise, “bitte segnen Sie Jakob. Er hört nichts.” “Ich weiß”, antwortete er, ging auf Jakob zu, neigte sich, küßte ihn aufs rechte Ohr und legte ihm die Hand auf die Stirn. Ich hatte den Kopf halb geneigt und spürte, daß er auch mir die Hand auf die Stirn legte, leicht und warm. Es war hell im Hof, schwerelos.

Badde asked the Pope to bless his son because he was deaf. The Pope said, “I know,” kissed his son’s right ear, and then laid one hand on his son’s head and one on Badde’s head. Later that night on the drive home, Badde remembers thinking “now things will get better. . . . I knew that it wouldn’t get any easier, but also that nothing would be quite like it was before from now on.” (“Jetzt wird alles gut. . . . Ich wußte, es würde nicht leichter werden, aber auch, daß nichts mehr sein würde wie vorher.“) Badde noticed that his watch had stopped ticking, showing the date November 17, 1980.

Exactly twenty-three years later, on November 17, 2003, Badde’s terminally ill brother called him from Berlin and asked him for some guidance on certain prayers to be said with a rosary. Badde obliged and even sent him a rosary that the Pope himself had given him and which he considered his “little treasure.” That very evening, Badde received a call on his cell phone from the Vatican:

In der Nähe des Pantheons klingelte mein Handy. “Sind Sie morgen in Rom?” fragte eine Stimme am anderen Ende der Leitung, aus dem Vatikan: “Und sind Sie gesund?” Ich war beides. “Dann kommen Sie früh um zehn mit Ihrem Paß zur Bronzenen Pforte! Der Heilige Vater empfängt Sie zu einer Privataudienz.”

The caller asked if Badde was in Rome and if he was healthy. Badde answered both questions in the affirmative and was thereupon advised that he was summoned to a private audience with the Pope.

The next day Badde, his wife, and their daughter appeared at their private audience with the Pope in the Vatican.

Ich sah den Papst sogleich, als sich die Tür öffnete. Licht flutete durch die Fenster und ergoß sich von einem Murano-Leuchter auf den Teppich, hinter dem der Nachfolger Petri in Weiß in seinem Sessel auf uns wartete.

Krankheit zeichnete ihn. Aus tausendjährigen Augen schaute er uns an. “Wie gut, daß es Sie gibt!” sagte meine Frau, als sie vor ihm das Knie beugte. Unsere Tochter strahlte ihn fassungslos an, als er seine Segenshand auf ihre Stirn legte. “Heiliger Vater!” stammelte ich, ergriff die Hand und küßte seinen Ring. “Ich habe Ihnen Weihrauch mitgebracht, aus Jerusalem, direkt vom Zionsberg.” – “Dankeschön!” antwortete er in seinem alten Deutsch. “Gott segne Dich!”

They saw the Pope bent with years and sickness. Badde knelt before the Pope and told him he had brought a gift of incense directly from Jerusalem for him.

Karol Wojtyla musterte mich mit wachen Augen, hob die Hand zum Segen und reichte mir einen Rosenkranz, wie zuvor schon meiner Frau und unserer Tochter. Exakt die gleiche Perlenschnur, die mein Bruder Karl seit Weihnachten 2004 auch in Berlin in seinem Grab um die Hand gewickelt hält.

Thanking Badde for the gift, the Pope then reached out and handed him a pearl rosary identical to the one that Badde had sent to his brother and that his brother now holds wrapped around his hands in his grave.

I found this story to be a fantastic illustration of the Lord’s tender mercies, as discussed by Elder Bednar. What an excellent talk that was, and what a wonderful experience provided to Paul Badde by the tender mercies of the Lord.

My Pope

April 4, 2005

A few in the Bloggernacle are discussing and rightly hailing Pope John Paul II. My post here today is not meant to be a copycat attempt or even an instance of following the example of the mega-blogs. Rather, I have had a very heavy heart these last few days, beginning with the Pope’s heart failure last week. I have always considered Pope John Paul II my Pope, and have always been interested in his view and in his teachings. This might come as a surprise to some given my views on ecumenicalism in relationships between the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and other Christian churches.[1]

But it is true: I have never doubted Pope John Paul II’s sincerity in his mission as the Holy Father of the Roman Catholic Church. In that role, he had stewardship over approximately one billion Catholics. Indeed, because he was the Pope for my entire cognizant life, he was more than a Pope to me; rather, his face signified in my mind’s eye the very office of Pope.[2] I am certain that God must be very pleased with John Paul II’s faithful stewardship over His many children. Additionally, the Pope set a standard for moral leadership through his Christlike and childlike sincerity and humility that can be an example to all leaders in the world. His Christian consistency was very moving to me, and I always sensed his devotion to Christ whenever his words appeared in the press or I saw his picture in the media. And even the Pope’s teachings, which could be described as applied New Testament Christianity, have been very influential in the course of twentieth-century history. Some of his stems from his upbringing by a pious father. The Pope once noted of his father that

[b]y profession he was a soldier and, after my mother’s death, his life became one of constant prayer. Sometimes I would wake up during the night and find my father on his knees, just as I would always see him kneeling in the parish church. We never spoke about a vocation to the priesthood, but his example was in a way my first seminary, a kind of domestic seminary.

This is a striking example of humble and sincere devotion; to pray alone in the middle of the night is not to pray on the street corner for the recognition of one’s piety in the eyes of others. It seems that he was raised of a goodly father.

Pope John Paul II’s decision, not mandated by his father, to enter the priesthood has had far reaching effects. One commentator, a professor at Notre Dame, commented on some of NBC’s coverage on Saturday night that this is the most influential Pope in the last five hundred years. Another commenter noted that this is the first Pope since Peter (who really was not a Pope but rather the senior Apostle of the Lord Jesus Christ) who grew up with Jews. Pope John Paul II was certainly unique in his promotion of faith for faith’s sake, regardless of whether that was the Catholic faith (although he was certainly interested in strengthening and expanding the Catholic fold). The story of the Pope’s life is moving and indeed seems guided by Providence to land him in the papacy as the right person at the exact right time. Some of the things which I most admire about his work and influence include the following:

– He lived under two totalitarian regimes: he was forced into servitude as the Nazis conquered Poland and he labored in his priesthood under the repression of Poland’s Communist government after World War II.
– His early visit in 1979 to his native Poland in which he leant support to the Solidarity movement and thereby achieved one of the earliest advances against the totalitarian grip of Communism was monumental. Nearly a third of all Poles attended his visit at that time, certainly a cause for worry for Poland’s Communist government.
– He championed human rights throughout his career and calling, basing the necessity of human rights on his strikingly clear and consistent pro-life views. He believed that both the innocent baby and the convicted killer had a right to life. He stood up consistently as a voice on behalf of the sanctity of human life.
– After the assassination attempt on his life in 1982, from which he never fully recovered, the Pope taught the world about Christ’s true doctrine of forgiveness and love when he visited the would-be assassin in prison, prayed with him, and forgave him. The cynical might call this a mere PR stunt, but I believe it was sincere. Pope John Paul II seemed without guile.
– He loved the children and blessed them wherever he went.
– He offered Christian guidance in all matters to all world leaders, and visited them in their own lands.
– In 2000, and then periodically between 2000 and 2004, he offered an official apology for the abominable actions of the Catholic Church in the past two millenia and asked forgiveness of those abused by such actions.

Through these and many other actions during his long papacy, John Paul II greatly influenced the entire world, offering guidance for world events, strengthening the faith of hundreds of millions, and teaching about Jesus Christ.

He was not only a talented spiritual leader on the world stage, but he was also a talented poet. Pope John Paul II’s poetry is another aspect of his life and work that I greatly admire. He wrote some of his early poems while a priest in Krakow under the pseudonym “Andrzej Jawien.” A few of his poems are collected online here. That site also refers to The Place Within – The Poetry of Pope John Paul II, translation and notes by Jerzy Peterkiewicz (Vaticiana, Vatican City: Random House, 1979, 1982).

One of the poems highlighted there is called “Material.” This poem is quite powerful, particularly the third stanza, which deals with the hands of toiling mankind:

Hands are the heart’s landscape. They split sometimes
like ravines into which an undefined force rolls.
The very same hands which man only opens
when his palms have had their fill of toil.
Now he sees: because of him alone others can walk in peace.
Hands are a landscape. When they split, the pain of their sores
surges free as a stream.
But no thought of pain–
no grandeur in pain alone.
For his own grandeur he does not know how to name.

These lines betray a hope within the Pope that “because of him alone others can walk in peace.” It is true that, as a humble servant, the Pope did not know how to name the grandeur with which the world would remember him. But the Pope knows who the real subject of this poem is as, upon closer scrutiny, one hears the voice of the Creator and Redeemer speaking directly with observations about the dignity of man’s life and work, even if it might seem futile and all drudgery:

Listen: the even knocking of hammers,
so much their own,
I project on to the people
to test the strength of each blow.
Listen now: electric current
cuts through a river of rock.
And a thought grows in me day after day:
the greatness of work is inside man.
Hard and cracked
his hand is differently charged
by the hammer
and thought differently unravels in stone
as human energy splits from the strength of stone
cutting the bloodstream, an artery
in the right place.
Look, how love feeds
on this well-grounded anger
which flows in to people’s breath
as a river bent by the wind,
and which is never spoken, but just breaks high vocal cords.
Passers-by scuttle off into doorways,
someone whispers: “Yet here is a great force.”
Fear not. Man’s daily deeds have a wide span,
a strait riverbed can’t imprison them long.
Fear not. For centuries they all stand in Him,
and you look at Him now
through the even knocking of hammers.

The “even knocking of hammers,” the productivity of mankind, the energy of work and invention, all testify to Him who created all people.

As a boy the future Pope memorized nineteenth-century poetry, including a poem by Slowacki called “The Slavic Pope,” a “prophetic poem about a pope from the East who ‘will not flee the sword, /Like that Italian./Like God, He will bravely face the sword…‘” But there had never been a Slavic Pope. Astonishingly, one of his own early poems, written long before Karol Wojtyla became Pope John Paul II, throws his own great influence as the world’s first Slavic Pope on the course of world events and on people’s faith during the twentieth century into stark relief. The poem, titled “The Armaments Worker,” begins bluntly with the line, “I cannot influence the fate of the world.” (hat tip to Die Welt, which refers to this poem’s German translation from Polish: “Der Rüstungsarbeiter” with the opening line of “Ich kann das Schicksal der Welt nicht beeinflussen“; the translation from German is my own). How ironic that line is when we look back at the life and work of Pope John Paul II!

[1] In all honesty, I believe such incredulity stems from a misunderstanding of my objections to the ecumenical project. I fully endorse efforts to reach out in friendship and Christian goodwill to members of other faiths and to fellowship them with the Saints, but the exclusive claims to authority of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints cannot, I believe, be set aside for some greater agenda of friendship. Thus, no matter how friendly we endeavor to become, Latter-day Saints’ legitimate claim to the true priesthood authority of God by its very nature precludes ecumenicalism–which seeks to overcome schism on issues of doctrine and authority–as a viable solution to religious acrimony.

Ironically, one of my first introductions to ecumenicalism came in 1996, and perhaps the Pope, as ecumenical as he was in many respects, has played a role in some of my views on the ecumenical project. I was present in Berlin when the Pope visited that city in June of 1996. On that occasion, according to the Catholic World News, the Pope “overcame some of the strongest expressions of hatred the [then] 76-year-old Pontiff has ever faced in his reign,” when

[t]he Holy Father had red paint thrown at his vehicle, gays and lesbians cavorted in a virulent counter-protest while shouting lewd slogans, and opponents of the Church’s teachings on sexuality distributed condoms through the crowd that had come to see the Pope.

During this visit to Berlin in 1996, I saw the Pope speak on the subject of ecumenicalism. Although he was interested in ameliorating rifts between Christian sects, and between Christianity as a whole and other religions, the Pope reinforced Catholic authority and truth claims vis-à-vis Protestants:

Later, at a meeting with Protestant leaders, the Holy Father dispelled speculation that he would lift mutual censures put in place by Catholics and Protestants during the Reformation 450 years ago. “Fundamental problems about Luther’s views on faith, scriptures, tradition and the church have not yet been sufficiently clarified,” the Pontiff said. “We certainly cannot overlook his personal limits, despite his attention to the Word of God and his determination to follow the correct path of faith.”

This perspective strengthened my own desire not to budge on authority and doctrinal issues while at the same expressing a desire to be amiable and cooperative with those of other faiths.

[2] I must admit that I do not go so far as to accept the Pope’s priesthood as being authoritative in God’s eyes; my membership and belief in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints entails a belief that true priesthood authority to act in the name of God must be imparted by the laying on of hands by those who are in authority to do so. I believe that this priesthood authority was lost from what became the Catholic Church in the period immediately following the death of Christ’s original Apostles and that the resurrected Peter, James, and John appeared to the prophet Joseph Smith and layed their hands on his head to convey this priesthood to him, thus restoring it to the world.